Analysing the chemical risks in your business
Handling chemicals can pose risks to humans and the environment. The legislation is very clear in respect of the performing and documentation of risk analysis.
The work environment legislation, regulations concerning operator's control and the knowledge requirements in the Environmental Code, each in its own way make the requirement that one should define the risks of chemical substances in products and processes. The risks that are present and what exposure is allowed are determined by the properties of the hazardous substance and the method of handling. There are several different methods of assessing the risks associated with a chemical substance. The company should decide which model has the right level of ambition and meets the external and internal requirements of the risk analysis. Many companies choose to work with a risk value. The risk value depends for example on the constituent substances' hazard, exposure time, exposure potential, amounts and the technical protective measures.
Risk value = Hazard x Amount x Exposure
This formula is not to be regarded as a complete risk analysis, but it can provide guidance. When assessing the results of risk analysis this should be considered, and it is advisable always to check that the results are reasonable before proceeding to implement measures. An example is given below of a method that can be used for risk analysis . The safety data sheet is an important source of information for a risk analysis.
 The method is based on the method presented in the Chemicals Guidance Manual, Copenhagen. COWI 2005
The hazard parameter is determined by the intrinsic properties of the substance. This may for example be a case of health hazard when inhaled, allergy, being carcinogenic, inflammability, harmful to the environment or the risk of reactions with other substances. Depending on the type of hazardous properties inherent in a substance it can be assigned a number of different points during the risk analysis. The company itself must decide how properties will be assigned points. Prioritisation has been done in PRIO by dividing the risk phrases for substances into "phasing-out substances" and "priority risk reduction substances". It is therefore proposed that the risk value is used for internal comparisons within each of the prioritisation groups in PRIO.
The next parameter in the calculation of the risk value is the amount. The greater the amounts that are used, often the greater the risk. If you want to work with risk values, from the amounts used by the company, various amount intervals can be created and then awarded points. A large volume of a substance therefore leads to more points in the model. To obtain a relevant relationship in the amounts handled, each company must decide which amount intervals to use in the risk model. When looking at the combined risk value for a substance, it is important to be aware that a substance with particularly hazardous properties may only need to be present in small amounts to account for a large risk.
The final parameter in the calculation is concerned with assessing to what extent humans and the environment are exposed as a result of a certain kind of handling. Environmental exposure includes for example the ground, air, surface water and sewage treatment plants. The size of the exposure is determined by several different factors. Exposure can be assigned points, in the same way as hazard and amount.
Exposure can involve both production processes and articles
In the first place one naturally thinks that it is exposure to chemicals in the production process that must be minimised. However, many chemicals accompany the company’s products (articles) and can have effects on health and the environment far away from the factory. It can be important to keep both aspects in mind when assessing exposure.
There are several factors to take into consideration when assessing exposure, and you must decide at what level of detail they are to be considered. This table lists factors which are important when assessing exposure in connection with production processes.
Examples of questions concerning exposure
Time of exposure
Each company must decide how it will assign points for each different type of use, but generally use inside a completely closed system gives lower points, whereas direct exposure to the surroundings or to workers . The use of products that are volatile or very prone to dust can also give higher points.
The use of articles and the waste that arises cause a diffuse spread of chemicals in the surroundings. In the case of articles with a long life, one must view the exposure in the longer perspective. Such articles accumulate in society, which means that there can be an extremely long-term exposure. The following factors must be considered when assessing the exposure of chemical substances concerning articles.
Examples of questions concerning exposure
Usage and user groups
Waste and waste disposal
The risk value provides a basis for decisions on what measures to take
The above questions can be of assistance when working on a risk analysis and they should give an overview of possible risks. The risk value model can be seen as a guide to the ranking of risks and prioritisation of preventive measures. The end product can be that chemicals are sorted into a few risk categories, such as "low risk", "acceptable risk", "medium risk" and "high risk". There may also arise situations where the basis for a risk analysis is so incomplete that the risk requires further investigation. With a risk analysis as a base, the next step is to decide on suitable protective measures. There may be technical, production or financial circumstances and limitations that must be considered. Examples of measures may be:
- Continued use of the product or a decision that a safer alternative is to be sought.
- Which working methods are to be used and which location is to be chosen.
- Which protective measures shall be taken and what instructions are to be given to the workers.
- What accident readiness and procedures for emergency readiness shall apply.
- What information about hazardous substances must accompany the product to the customer.
The risk analysis should be documented, and appropriate managers and employees should have access to the documentation.
Links to web sites that may be useful when working with risk analyses
The Swedish Work Environment Authority (Arbetsmiljöverket)
Apart from the legislation, the website includes, for instance, check lists for risk assessment of chemicals and company examples of how risk assessment can be performed.
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket)
Regulation (1998:901) concerning operator's control and associated general advice (NFS 2001:2)
The Chemistry Guide (only in Swedish) helps you at your workplace to find out which legal requirements apply to your work environment and advises how to continue working to minimise risks.