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The Swedish Chemicals Agency logo

The word list contains words, concepts, abbreviations and acronyms occurring in texts on this website or in linked documents. In some cases, links are made to more information.

A

Accounting report

An excerpt from the Swedish Chemical Agency’s  Products Register containing data about the substances a company has reported.

Actor

Means all manufacturers and/or importers and/or downstream users in a supply chain. (REACH)

ADI

Acceptable Daily Intake. A measure of the amount of a specific substance (originally applied for a food additive, later also for a residue of a veterinary drug or pesticide) in food or drinking water that can be ingested (orally) on a daily basis over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk. Usually expressed in milligrams (of the substance) per kilograms of body weight per day.

AISE

Association Internationale de la Savonnerire, de la Détergence et des Produits d´Entretien.

Allergen

A substance capable of stimulating hypersensitivity reaction.

Alloy

A metallic material, homogenous in macroscopic scale, consisting of one or several elements combined in such a way that they cannot be separated in a mechanical way.

AMAP

Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme

Antifouling products

Chemical products that prevent growth on aquatic organisms on boats and ships.

AOEL

Acceptable Operator Exposure Level. Highest acceptable exposure dose for a human being.

ARM

Accelerated Risk Management.

Article

Commodity, for example a chair or textiles containing or treated with a chemical product.

Means an object which during production is given a special shape, surface or design which determines its function to a greater degree than does its chemical composition. (REACH)

ASEAN

Association of Southeast Asian Nations.

ASEF

Asia-Europe Environment Forum.

ASEM

Asia-Europe Meeting.

ASP

The Africa Stockpiles Programme (ASP) is working to clean up obsolete pesticides, dispose of them safely and prevent more stocks from accumulating.

B

Background level

1.The concentration of a substance in an environmental media (air, water, or soil) that occurs naturally or is not the result of human activities. 2. In exposure assessment the concentration of a substance in a defined control area, during a fixed period of time before, during, or after a data-gathering operation. (ecology.dictionary.org)

BASTA

Nonprofit Swedish company aiming to phase out hazardous substances in building products.

BAT

Best Available Technology.

BATNEEC

Best Available Technology Not Entailing Excessive Costs.

BBP

Bensylbutylphalate.

BCF

Bio Concentration Factor. Gives a value of the concentration of a substance inside the organism, compared with the surrounding environment (often water).

Bioaccumulating substances

Substances that accumulate in tissue.

Biocide

Biocide is latin and means destroying living organisms.

Biological pesticide

A biological pesticide shall mean a biotechnical organism that is produced specifically to prevent or deter animals, plants or microorganisms, including viruses, from causing damage or detriment to human health or damage to property. (Chapter 14, Section 6, the Environmental Code).

Biomagnification

Increased concentration of lipophilic environmental toxins in the food chain.

Biosphere

All living organisms.

Biotechnical organism

A biotechnical organism shall mean a product that is produced specifically as a control agent or for any other technical purpose and which, wholly or in part, consists of or contains living microorganims, including viruses, or nematodes, insects or arachnids. (Chapter 14 kap, Section 3, the Environmental Code).

Biotope

Type of nature conditions, living environment.

BIR

Basic Information Requirement.

BIT

Benzisotiazolinone.

BPA Bisphenol A

Bisphenol A, also 4,4'-dihydroxy-2,2-diphenylpropane and BPA, is one of the world’s most common plastic chemicals. Bisphenol A is an organic compound where two phenol molecules are bound to the same coal in a propane chain.

Brominated flame retardants

Material used to protect against fire in plastic, rubber and textile and which contains the substance bromine.

Brundtland Commission

UN commission led by Gro Harlem Brundtland, who in 1987 presented the report Our common future. The key concepts of the commission were sustainable development, satisfying our present needs without jeopardising the possibilities of future generations to satisfy theirs.

C

CA

Competent authority.

Candidate list

List containing SVHC-substances in accordance with Article 59 in the REACH Regulation. The substances are candidates to be included in Annex XIV of REACH, which means that authorisation will be required to use them.

CAP

Common Agricultural Policy. (EU)

CARACAL

Competent Authorities for REACH and CLP.

Cardiff process

Started in 1997 in order to integrate environmental consideration in sector politics; includes nine sectors at present.

CAREC

Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation.

Cartagena protocol

Protocol on biosafety, adopted in Cartagena in 2000; an appendix to the Convention on Biodiversity.

CASG Nano

Nano Competent Authorities Subgroup on Nanomaterials.

CAS number

Registration number assigned by the Chemical Abstract Services (CAS), Columbus, Ohio.

CE

Conformité Européenne, labelling symbol.

CEFIC

European Chemical Industry Council.

CEN

Comité Européen de Normalisation - European Committee for Standardization.

Certification

Certificate/proof of compliance with certain standards set up for an area by a standardisation body.

CFC

Chlorofluorocarbons. CFCs are used in cooling, heat and other climate facilities, in chemical products and in foam plastic. Banned according to the Montreal protocol.

Chemical/chemical product

Chemical substance and preparations (mixtures) of chemical substances. Chemical substances may be especially regulated products, i.e. pesticides and other products.

Chemical pesticide

A ‘chemical pesticide’ shall mean a chemical product that is intended to prevent or deter animals, plants or microorganisms, including viruses, from causing damage or detriment to human health or damage to property (Chapter 14, Section 5, the Environmental Code).

Chlorinated paraffins

Chlorinated hydrocarbons, often used as softeners och flame retardants in plastic. Present in short, medium and long chained variants.

Circa

Communication and Information Resource Centre Administrator. An intranet maintained by the European Commission for readily access to documents and participation in interest groups.

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, adopted in Washington, D.C., in 1973.

CLEEN

Chemical Legislation European Enforcement Network.

CLH

Classification and Labelling Harmonised.

CLP

EU Regulation on Classification, Labelling and Packaging of substances and mixtures.

CLRTAP

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.

CMR

Carcinogenic, Mutagenic, toxic to Reproduction; CMR-substances.

Cocktail effect

Combined effect of a mixture of chemicals that may be greater than the effect of each single substance by itself.

COD

Chemical Oxygen Demand (measure of the amount of oxygen used when there is a complete chemical degradation of organic substances in water).

Cohiba/COHIBA

Control of hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea region. (HELCOM)

CoI

Cost of inaction.

COM

European Commission.

Commercial agent

Person or company who acts in the place of a manufacturer or an importer.

Competent authority

Or CA is one or several national authorities appointed by each EU member state to implement the legislation or represent the member country in workgroups and expert groups.

Consent to a commercial agent

The Swedish Chemicals Agency may allow a commercial agent to fulfil the obligation to report import of a chemical product or biotechnical organism to Sweden in the place of the person responsible for the import.

Consolidated version

Compiled version of a regulatory text which include all amendments in their respective place in the basic piece of legislation.

Contained use

Shall mean an activity in which organisms are genetically modified, cultured, stored, used, transported, destroyed, disposed of or used in any other way, and for which specific containment measures are used to limit their contact with the general population and the environment. (Chapter 13, Section 5, the Environmental Code). Can also apply to chemicals at synthesis, for instance.

COP

Conference of the Parties. (UN convention texts).

Copenhagen Chemicals Charter

Document raising expectations facing the overhaul of the EU chemicals policy; signed by 100 organisations in 2000.

CoRAP

Community Rolling Action Plan (action plan for evaluation of chemicals).

Co-RMS

Co-Reporting Member State.

CPR

Construction Products Regulation (EU).

CREAM

Mechanistic effect models for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals (EU network)

CSD

Commission on Sustainable Development (UN).

CSE

India Centre for Science and Environment.

CSTEE

Scientific Committee for Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment (EC).

Customs tariff

Combined nomenclature of the European Union. It allows compiling, exchanging and publishing statistical data about EU trade with countries outside the EU. The tariff is also used to compile and distribute data on trade between the EU member states. (Council Regulation (EEC) No2658/87).

CWG

Abbreviation for Commission Working Group (EC).

D

DBP

Dibutylphthalate.

DCHP

Dicyclohexylphthalate.

DDE

4,4'Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene; degradation product of DDT, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroetan.

deca-BDE

Decabromodiphenylether.

DEET

N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide.

DEHP

Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

Deliberate release

‘Deliberate release’ shall mean any intentional introduction of genetically modified organisms into the environment without containment. (Chapter 13, Section 6, the Swedish Environmental Code).

Derivative

Chemical compound that can be derived from or produced from another chemical compound.

Detergent

Washing and cleaning product.

DG SANCO

Directorate General for Health and Food Safety (EU).

DHNUP

Di(branched and straight C7-C11) alkylphthtalates.

DIBP

Diisobutylphthalate.

DIDP

Diisodecylphthalate.

Diffuse spread

Cumulative exposure of a chemical substance in an area where the release sources are of an indefinable character, for example by being many, small, variable, etcetera.

DIHP

Di(branched C6-C8) alkylphthalates.

DINP

Diisononylphthalate.

Distributor

Means any natural or legal person established within the Community, including a retailer, who only stores and places on the market a substance, on its own or in a mixture, for third parties. (REACH)

DNEL

Derived no effect level; a limit value.

Downstream user

Means any natural or legal person established within the Community, other than the manufacturer or the importer, who uses a substance, either on its own or in a mixture, in the course of his industrial or professional activities. A distributor or a consumer is not a downstream user. A re-importer exempted pursuant to Article 2(7)(c) shall be regarded as a downstream user. (REACH)

E

EC/EU

European Communities/European market, European Union.

ECB

European Chemicals Bureau, predecessor of ECHA, with a few remaining tasks.

European Central Bank.

ECCO

European Commission CO-ordination. The EC administration to coordinate the background documentation (dossier), submitted with an application to have a plant protection product included in Annex I to the Plant Protection Directive. The designated reporting country compiles a report (monograph) to be evaluated by an expert group.

ECHA

European Chemicals Agency.

ECLIPS

European Classification and Labelling Inspections of Preparations. Enforcement project within the EU inspection cooperative activities.

EC number

Seven-digit identification number for chemical substances on the EU market. Substances that were on the market before 18 September are not counted as existing substances and start with 200 or 300.

Substances notified/reported after 18 September 1981 are included in the list of new substances (ELINCS) and start with 400. The number series that starts with 500 includes ‘No longer polymers’ (NLP), i.e. substances which at the first listing were considered polymers and thus not required to be listed in EINECS.

ECVAM

European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (to using animals).

EDC/EDS

Endocrine-disrupting chemical/compound/Endocrine-disrupting substance.

EEA

European Environment Agency (Copenhagen).

EEB

European Environmental Bureau. Cooperation body of non-governmental organisations.

EES

European Economic Sphere (EES countries are Island, Liechtenstein and Norway, and the EU member states).

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority.

Ecosystem

A limited community of organisms constituting a part of nature, for example a lake, a land part or a forest area including its flora and fauna.

EINECS

European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances. Inventory of existing, commercially used chemical substances considered to have been on the European market between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981.

ELINCS

European List of Notified Chemical Substances (notified after 1981).

EMAS

Eco Management and Audit Scheme. EU’s voluntary environmental management instrument for companies and other organisations to evaluate, report, and improve their environmental performance.

Enforcement guidance

Enforcement guidance includes assessment, follow-up and coordination of the operative enforcement, and support and advice to municipalities.

Enzym

Specific type of protein with a catalytic function. Enzymes are part of the chemical processes of the human body without being absorbed themselves.

Ester

Substance formed by acid and alcohol.

ETU

Ethylenethiourea.

EUR-Lex

European Lex. The EU database portal for publishing EU law, particularly legislation and law practice, and the decision processes between the Commission and the institutions.

Exemption

Waiver.

Existing substance

Substance that was used within the EU before 1 September 1981 and listed in EINECS.

Exposure

Extent to which human beings and the environment are in contact with/exposed to hazardous substances.

Exposure scenario

Means the set of conditions, including operational conditions and risk management measures, that describe how the substance is manufactured or used during its life-cycle and how the manufacturer or importer controls, or recommends downstream users to control, exposures of humans and the environment. These exposure scenarios may cover one specific process or use or several processes or uses as appropriate. (REACH)

F

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization.

First-tier supplier

A manufacturer or a party who enters a product into Sweden with the intention to place it on the market.

Flame retardants

See brominated flame retardants.

Full study report

Means a complete and comprehensive description of the activity performed to generate the information. This covers the complete scientific paper as published in the literature describing the study performed or the full report prepared by the test house describing the study performed. (REACH)

Fungicide

Pesticide to combat fungus.

G

GEF

Global Environment Facility.

Generic name

A company may apply to use a descriptive name (generic name) of a component in a product and put that name on the label or a safety data sheet instead of an unambiguous chemical name.

Genetic organism

Biological entity that can breed and transfer genetic material.

GHS

Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling.

GLP

Good Laboratory Practice. The Swedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assesment (SWEDAC) is the competent Swedish authority.

GMO

Genetically modified organism; an organism in which the genetic material is changed in a way that is not naturally occurring by mating or by recombination.

Greenbook/green paper

Green papers are documents published by the European Commission to stimulate discussion on given topics at European level. They invite the relevant parties (bodies or individuals) to participate in a consultation process and debate on the basis of the proposals they put forward.

Groundwater

Water in the soil or in rock.

H

Halon

Have been used in fire extinguishers; trade name for brominated halogenated chlorofluoro carbons (HCFCs).

Handling

The ‘handling’ of chemical products or biotechnical organisms shall mean any activity or measure involving manufacture, processing, treatment, packaging, storage, transport, use, disposal, destruction, processing, sale, transfer and similar procedures. (Chapter 14, Section 4, the Environmental Code).

Hazard

An inherent property in a substance that may cause unwanted effects.

Hazard assessment

Identification of hazard and determines the correlation between dose and respons for observed, harmful effects.

Hazard identification

Identification of the harmful effects of a substance due to its inherent properties.

HBCDD

Hexabromocyklododecane.

HCBD

Hexachlorobutadiene

HCWH

Health Care Without Harm.

HELCOM

Helsinki Commission.

Herbicide

Pesticide to combat weed.

HICC

Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexen carboxaldehyde.

Highly fluorinated substances

Highly fluorinated substances include both per och poly fluorinated substances.

Hormone disrupting

Substances affecting the hormonal systems and which may cause damage to organisms, populations or ecosystems.

Hygienic limit value

The threshold limit value (TLV) of a chemical substance is a level to which it is believed a worker can be exposed day after day for a working lifetime without adverse health effects.

Hyperplasia

An increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation.

I

ICCA

International Council of Chemical Associations.

ICCM

International Conference on Chemicals Management. SAICM’s international conference on chemicals management.

Identified use

Means a use of a substance on its own or in a mixture, or a use of a mixture that is intended by an actor in the supply chain, including his own use, or that is made known to him in writing by an immediate downstream user. (REACH)

IFCS

Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (established in 1994).

IKEM

Innovation and chemical industries in Sweden.

ILO

International Labour Organization. (UN)

IMO

International Maritime Organization.

IMPEL

EU Network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law.

Import/importer

Used in the Swedish Environmental Code, rules and regulations with the meaning to transfer an article to Sweden from another country outside the EU, so-called third country. This is based on how the Swedish Customs and the tax authorities define import. The Swedish versions of the EU legislation use import and export also for trade between the EU member states.

import: Means the physical introduction into the customs territory of the Community;
importer: means any natural or legal person established within the Community who is responsible for import (REACH).

In vitro

Studies on different systems with isolated organs and cell systems.

INCI

International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients.

Industry chemical

Chemical product used industrially, i.e. as a raw material or a commodity chemical. The commodity chemical may be repackaged in smaller packagings to become a consumer product, for example acetone in a nail polish remover.

Insecticide

Pesticide to combat insects.

Intermediate

Means a substance that is manufactured for and consumed in or used for chemical processing in order to be transformed into another substance. (REACH)

IPCS

International Program on Chemical Safety (signed in 1980).

IPEN

International POPs Elimination Network.

IPP

Integrated Product Policy. Environmentally oriented product policy directed towards sustainable production and consumption.

IPPC

International Plant Protection Convention.

ISO

International Organization for Standardization.

ITP

International Training Programme.

IUCLID

International Uniform Chemical Information Database. EC database to store and spread information about substances collected according to Regulation (EU) Nr 1907/2006. (REACH)

IUPAC

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Nomenclature to unambiguously determine chemical substances.

K

KID

Chemicals in retail (a project study).

KIFS

Short for the Swedish Chemicals Agency’s code of statutes, regulations.

Kit

Package containing two parts, for example, a basic compound and a hardener for glue.

L

Labelling obligation

Requirements made in the Swedish Chemical Agency’s Classification and Labelling Regulations (KIFS 2005:7) and in Regulation (EU) No 1272/2008 relating to the release of chemical products on the market. The obligation means that chemical products shall be classified and labelled with regard to the danger to health and the environment.

Lactation

 

Describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.

LD 50/LC 50

Lethal Dose/Lethal Concentration. Measure of acute toxicity and the dosis at which half of the individuals of a population dies. LC 50 is the measure of acute toxicity in ecotoxicological environments, for example water.

Legal definition

Concept defined in a legal text.

Life cycle analysis (LCA)

Estimation of a product’s way from production to destruction (cradle to grave).

LIRA

Legal and Institutional infrastructures and measures for Recovering costs of national Administration (guidelines provided by UNEP to estimate legal and institutional structures and administration costs).

Lissabon strategy

Launched at an EU top summit in 1998. Economic reforms are to promote employment and growth through increased market competition for goods, services and capital.

LOAEL

Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level. The lowest dosis at which toxic effect has been registered.

LPV chemical

Low Production Volume. Chemical released on the EU market in an amount of 10–1,000 tonnes per year and manufacturer or importer.

Low risk biocidal product

Biocidal product which does not contain any other active substances than those listed in Annex IA to the Biocidal Directive and which does not contain any potentially harmful substance (definition according to Section 2 of the Biocidal Products Ordinance (2000:338). A potentially harmful substance is a substance that is not an active substance but which might nevertheless have negative effects on human beings, animals or the environment.

Low-risk active substance (according to the EU Regulation on plant protection products)

Low-risk active substances are substances that will only pose a low risk to human and animal health as well as the environment. Which substances that are classified as low-risk active substances are decided at EU level.

M

Manufacture/manufacturing

Means production or extraction of substances in the natural state. (REACH)

Manufacturer

Means any natural or legal person established within the Community who manufactures a substance within the Community. (REACH)

Mercury

Metallic element.

MIR

Minimum Information Requirement. The smallest amount of information required to serve its purpose.

Mixture

Means a mixture or solution composed of two or more substances. (REACH)

Monomer

Means a substance which is capable of forming covalent bonds with a sequence of additional like or unlike molecules under the conditions of the relevant polymer-forming reaction used for the particular process. (REACH)

Montreal Protocol

Signed in 1987 and containing binding agreements to reduce the use and production of CFC (chlorofluoro carbons) and halons. The protocol is regularly updated.

Morphology

Biological term, form and structure of a tissue.

MSA

Environmental sanction charge.

MSC

MSC EU Member State Committee

Mutagen

Substance that harm the genes.

N

Nano

A nanometre is one millionth millimetre or a billionth metre. The word nano comes from Greek and means dwarf.

Not chemically modified substance

Means a substance whose chemical structure remains unchanged, even if it has undergone a chemical process or treatment, or a physical mineralogical transformation, for instance to remove impurities. (REACH)

Notified substance

Means a substance for which a notification has been submitted and which could be placed on the market in accordance with Directive 67/548/EEC. (REACH)

Neurotoxicology

The understanding of how toxins affect the brain and the nervous system.

New substance

Substance used in the EU after September 1981.

NGO (Non-Government Organisation)

For example consumer and environmental organisations.

NMVOC

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compound, mainly released due to livestock farming, also see VOC.

NOAEL

No Observed Adverse Effect Level. The highest dosis at which no toxic effects have been registered.

Non-toxic environment

One of Sweden’s 16 national environmental quality objectives.

O

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

OEWG

Open-Ended Working Group.

Official statistics of Sweden

Much of the statistical data from the Swedish Chemicals Agency is part of Official Statistics of Sweden, and forms the basis for research, joint planning and public information.

OJ

Official Journal. The European Union’s journal (OJ).

Operative enforcement

Direct enforcement of a party carrying out an activity or a measure.

Oral exposure

Exposure via the mouth; food for example.

OSPAR

Oslo-Paris Convention to protect the marine environment in the North-East Atlantic.

Ozone depleting

Substance that might imply harm to the structure or function of the ozone layer of the stratosphere. Often persistent organic substances which react with the ozone and lower it in such a way that the sun’s UV rays in too high an extent reach the surface of the earth.

P

PAH

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons; many of which have harmful effects.

PAN

Pesticide Action Network.

Parallell import

Means that an importer in addition to the manufacturer/ distributor of the right holder imports a protected product, for example a branded product, and sells it on the domestic market without permission from the distributor operating there. An important prerequisite is that the article has to have been placed on the market by the right holder or with the right holder’s consent.

Parallell import is permitted on the EU internal market and is also encouraged by the Commission for competitive reasons to level out prices on the different national markets.

PBDEs

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

PBT

Persistent, Bioaccumulative, Toxic. Chemicals with PBT properties are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic.

PCB

Polychlorinated biphenyl.

PCN

Polychlorinated naphthalene.

PCP

Pentachlorophenol was previously used for surface treatment (dipping) and impregnation of wood to protect against rotting and growth of discolouring bruising mushrooms. PCP was banned as an active substance in wood preservatives by the end of the 1970s due to its serious health and environmental properties.

Per year

Means per calendar year, unless stated otherwise, for phase-in substances that have been imported or manufactured for at least three consecutive years, quantities per year shall be calculated on the basis of the average production or import volumes for the three preceding calendar years. (REACH)

Perfluorinated substances

Perfluorinated substances are a group of organic substances characterised by the fact that they are fully fluorinated, i.e. they contain a coal link where each hydrogen atom has been replaced by a fluoro atom. The concept highly fluorinated substances is sometimes used as a generic term for per and poly fluorinated substances.

Periodic system

Table of elements established in the 1860s when it was concluded that the chemical and physical properties of the elements varied periodically with the atomic weight.

Pesticides

Chemical products and biotechnical organisms, which require an authorisation. A pesticide can either be a biocidal product or a plant protection product.

A pesticide is defined in the Swedish Environmental Code as a chemical or biological product intended to prevent or deter animals, plants or microorganisms from causing damage or detriment to human health or damage to property. (Chapter 14, Section 5, the Environmental Code).

PET

Polyethyleneterepfhtalate.

PFAS

Perfluoroalkylsulphonate. A group of persistent chemical substances.

PFBS

Perfluorobutylsulphonate. Persistent chemical substance belong to the PFAS group.

PFNA

Perfluorononanoic acid.

PFOA

Perfluoroctanoic acid.

PFOS

Perfluorooctanesulfonate. Persistent chemical substance belong to the PFAS group.

Phase-in substance

A substance that satisfies certain criteria. (REACH)

Phthalate

Ester of phthalic acid, often used as a softener in plastic.

PIC

Prior Informed Consent. The Rotterdam Convention (1998) means that export of hazardous pesticides and chemicals is not permitted unless the receiving country accept the import.

Placing on the market

Making a product available to someone else.

Means supplying or making available, whether in return for payment or free of charge, to a third party. Import shall be deemed to be placing on the market. (REACH)

Plant protection products

Plant protection products are primarily used to protect plants and plant products within agriculture, agriculture and horticulture. Their task is for example to protect plant and parts of plants against attacks of vermin, fungi or competitive plants.

Polyfluorinated substances

Polyfluorinated substances are as much perfluorinated substances, but they are not fully fluorinated. Polyflourinated substances still have hydrogen atoms in the coal chain and are not as stable as perfluorinated substances but can be degraded. Examples of polyfluorinated substances are fluorotelomers and fluoropolymers. These may contain residues of perfluorinated substances and may degrade to perfluorinated substances in the environment. Polyfluorinated substances are often used instead of perfluorinated substances in many applications today.

The concept highly fluorinated substances is sometimes used as a generic term for per and poly fluorinated substances.

Polymer

Means a substance consisting of molecules characterised by the sequence of one or more types of monomer units. Such molecules must be distributed over a range of molecular weights wherein differences in the molecular weight are primarily attributable to differences in the number of monomer units. A polymer comprises the following:
(a) a simple weight majority of molecules containing at least three monomer units which are covalently bound to at least one other monomer unit or other reactant;
(b) less than a simple weight majority of molecules of the same molecular weight.
In the context of this definition a ‘monomer unit’ means the reacted form of a monomer substance in a polymer. (REACH)

POP

Persistent Organic Pollutant.

POPs Convention

Also the Stockholm Convention, signed 2001 for the protection of persistent organic pollutants.

Population

A collection of individuals of a species within a certain area.

Potential harmful substance

A substance that is not an active substance but with a property to have a negative effect on human beings, animals or the environment.

PP

Polypropene.

PPP Directive

The EU Plant Protection Products Directive.

PPP principle

Polluter pays principle. Adopted by the OECD and means that the environmental costs of travelling by car, for example, are paid by the motorists through road or carbon dioxide taxes.

Precursor

Denomination of a substance which in a process with other components forms hazardous substances.

Preparation

From the Preparations Directive1999/45/EEC, deliberate preparation or solvent consisting of two or several chemicals (chemical substances).

PRIO

Short for the Priority Guide, name of the web application.

Producer

- a professional manufacturer, importer or vendor of a product
or packaging; or
2. a person whose professional activities generate waste which requires special measures with respect to waste disposal or the environment. (Chapter 15, Section 4, the Environmental Code).

Producer of an article means any natural or legal person who makes or assembles an article within the Community. (REACH)

Product and process orientated research and development

Means any scientific development related to product development or the further development of a substance, on its own, in mixtures or in articles in the course of which pilot plant or production trials are used to develop the production process and/or to test the fields of application of the substance. (REACH)

Product choice principle, substitution principle

The product choice principle is defined in Chapter 2, Section 6 of the Environmental Code. The principle is also called the product choice principle. Persons who pursue an activity or take a measure, or intend to do so, shall avoid using or selling chemical products or biotechnical organisms that may involve risks to human health or the environment if products or organisms that are assumed to be less dangerous can be used instead. The same requirement shall
apply to articles that contain or are treated with a chemical product
or a biotechnical organism. The Environmental Code applies to everyone. A consumer is, thus, responsible to find less dangerous alternatives, also non chemical.

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride.

Q

QSAR

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship. Models used to predict the properties of chemicals based on their molecular structures.

QSP

Quick Start Programme.

R

RAC

Risk Assessment Committee (EU).

REACH

Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006. Introduced with the EU white paper on the EU strategy for a future chemicals policy.

Recipient of an article

Means an industrial or professional user, or a distributor, being supplied with an article but does not include consumers. (REACH)

Recipient of a substance or a mixture

Means a downstream user or a distributor being supplied with a substance or a mixture. (REACH)

Registrant

Means the manufacturer or the importer of a substance or the producer or importer of an article submitting a registration for a substance. (REACH)

Reproductive disturbing/toxic to reproduction

Substance that harm the reproductive capacity.

Reference value

Recommended value, for example a short-term limit value or a level limit value.

Restriction

Means any condition for or prohibition of the manufacture, use or placing on the market. (REACH)

Reversed burden of proof

Means that a scientifically based suspicion of the harmful effect of a substance shall be considered until the opposite has been proved.

RIP

REACH Implementation Project.

Risk

The combination of hazard and the probability for it to occur; combination hazard - exposure.

Risk assessment

Process in four steps by which the relationship between the predicted exposure of the harmful effects of a substance is determined: hazard identification, assessment of dose-response relationship, assessment of exposure and risk characterisation. Targeted risk assessment is less comprehensive and a more specific and focused assessment than a complete risk assessment.

Risk characterisation

Estimation of how extensive and serious such harmful effects are that may be assumed to arise in a population of people or a part of the environment as a result of an actual or predicted exposure to a substance.

RMO

Risk Management Option.

RMS

Reporting Member State. (EU)

Robust study summary

Means a detailed summary of the objectives, methods, results and conclusions of a full study report providing sufficient information to make an independent assessment of the study minimising the need to consult the full study report. (REACH)

RoHS

Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment.

RoI

Registry of Intention. Registration of the intention to submit documentation on a SVHC substance.

Rotterdam Convention

Signed in1998, meaning that export of hazardous pesticides and chemicals is not permitted unless the receiving country accepts the import.

S

SADC

Southern African Development Community.

Safety Data Sheet, SDS

MSDS - Material Safety Data Sheet. Information (16 points) to be given for products that are hazardous to health and the environment.

SAICM

Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management. The global strategy from 2006 is an agreement aiming to follow and push for measures needed to reaching the target that until 2020 at the latest, chemicals are produced and used in such a way that harmful effects on human health and the environment are as limited as possible. (UNEP Governing Council Decision SS.VII/3)

SANCO

SANté et Protection des Consommateurs. (EU)

Scientific research and development

Means any scientific experimentation, analysis or chemical research carried out under controlled conditions in a volume less than one tonne per year. (REACH)

SEAC

Committee for Socio-Economic Analysis of the European Chemicals Agency. (EU)

SENSA

Swedish Environmental Secretariat for Asia.

SERP

Swedish Rapporteur Programme for the evaluation of active substances in plant protection products and biocidal products.

Seveso Directive

Directive from 1996 on measures to prevent and limit the consequences of serious accidents involving hazardous substances.

SIAM

SIDS Initial Assessment Meeting.

SIDS

Screening Information Data Set. Information that is at least required to be able to decide if an existing high production volume chemical requires continued investigation.

SIS

Swedish Standards Institute.

Site

Means a single location, in which, if there is more than one manufacturer of (a) substance(s), certain infrastructure and facilities are shared. (REACH)

SMC

Sound Management of Chemicals.

SME

Small-to-Medium-sized Enterprise (less than 250 employees).

Means small and medium-sized enterprises as defined in the Commission Recommendation of 6 May 2003 concerning the definition of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. (REACH)

SNIF

Summary Notification Information Format (placing GMO on the market).

Spider

Swedish information pesticides database for enquiries and reports.

SPIN

Substances in Preparations in the Nordic countries. Database on chemical substances in products on the Nordic market.

SPORT

Strategic Partnership on Reach Testing.

STAP

Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel. (UNEP)

STEL

Short-Term Exposure Limit.

Study summary

Means a summary of the objectives, methods, results and conclusions of a full study report providing sufficient information to make an assessment of the relevance of the study. (REACH)

Substance

Chemical element and its compounds in natural or prepared form, including additives necessary to product stability and any impurities from the production process, but excluding solvents which may be separated without affecting the stability of the substance or changing its composition.

Substances which occur in nature

Means a naturally occurring substance as such, unprocessed or processed only by manual, mechanical or gravitational means, by dissolution in water, by flotation, by extraction with water, by steam distillation or by heating solely to remove water, or which is extracted from air by any means. (REACH)

Substitution principle, product choice principle

The product choice principle is defined in Chapter 2, Section 6 of the Environmental Code. The principle is also called the product choice principle. Persons who pursue an activity or take a measure, or intend to do so, shall avoid using or selling chemical products or biotechnical organisms that may involve risks to human health or the environment if products or organisms that are assumed to be less dangerous can be used instead. The same requirement shall apply to articles that contain or are treated with a chemical product or a biotechnical organism. The Environmental Code applies to everyone. A consumer is, thus, responsible to find less dangerous alternatives, also non chemical.

Supplier of an article

Means any producer or importer of an article, distributor or other actor in the supply chain placing an article on the market. (REACH)

Supplier of a substance or a mixture

Means any manufacturer, importer, downstream user or distributor placing on the market a substance, on its own or in a mixture, or a mixture. (REACH)

Sustainable development

Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Out common future, 1987).

SVHC substance

Substances of Very High Concern.

Substances that meet the criteria in Article 57 in the REACH Regulation. These are carcinogenic, mutagenic, toxic to reproduction, dangerous for the environment (persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic or very persistent and very bioaccumulative) or which have other serious properties, for example endocrine disrupting properties.

Synergy/synergism

The combined effect of several substances contained in a chemical product being greater or lesser than the effect of the individual substance.

T

TAC

Technical Adaptation Committee. (EU)

TAIEX

EU Technical Assistance and Information Exchange (helps EU candidate countries to implement EU rules into national legislation).

TBT

Tributyl tin.

TDI

Tolerable daily intake. States the amount of a substance (usually in mg/kg bodyweight and day) that a human being is estimated to ingest without negative health effects.

TGD

Technical Guidance Document (for risk assessment of new or existing substances).

TLV-C

Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling indicates the highest value for exposure under (usually) 15 minutes. TLV-C is used for fast-acting substances and which might be harmful already at brief, high exposure.

Third country

All countries that are not members of the EU.

Toy

Product designed as or designated to be a toy. (Toys Directive)

Trivial name

Nomenclature that unambiguously determines chemical substances. See IUPAC.

TSCA

Toxic Substances Control Act. Chemical legislation of the USA from1977.

U

UNCED

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme.

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme.

Use

Means any processing, formulation, consumption, storage, keeping, treatment, filling into containers, transfer from one container to another, mixing, production of an article or any other utilisation. (REACH)

Use and exposure category

Means an exposure scenario covering a wide range of processes or uses, where the processes or uses are communicated, as a minimum, in terms of the brief general description of use. (REACH)

V

VOC

Volatile Organic Compound.

vPvB

Very persistent and very bioaccumulating.

W

WEEE

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE Directive 2002/96/EC). Directive on wastes consisting of or containing electrical or electronic equipment. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is competent authority for issues relating to the WEEE Directive.

WHO

World Health Organization.

White paper

Commission White Papers are documents containing proposals for EU action in a specific area. In some cases they follow a Green Paper published to launch a consultation process at European level. When a White Paper is favourably received by the Council of the EU, it can lead to an action programme for the Union in the area concerned.

WPMN

Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (OECD).

WWF

World Wide Fund for Nature.

X

XRF

X-ray fluorescence, X-ray refractiometer.

Other sources 

ECHA Term database